1 ? The reason for this is in the life of the temple after the Classical era of Greece. The eastern side of the temple was completed in 445- 440 BC and the western side, slightly later in 435-430 BC. We don't know for sure who built this Doric order temple, but some have attributed it to the famous Athenian builder Iktinos. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. However, it could explain why people thought this temple was dedicated to Theseus. It's one of the best surviving examples of Doric architecture in Greece, and that's pretty exciting. Temple of Hephaestus Hephaestus was one of the 12 Olympian Gods, the youngest one, son of Zeus, father of all So, it's never been truly abandoned, and as a result we have a great example of Doric architecture that never fell to ruins. Work began on the construction of the temple in 445 BC when Pericles was in power. Hephaestus can be described as one of the less graceful gods in the Ancient Greek dodekatheon, the pantheon of the twelve major gods. It was built in 449 BCE following the architect Ictinus’ plan, who worked on the realization of the Parthenon as well, has thirty-four columns and a frieze on its east side depicting nine of the famous twelve labors of Heracles. Temple of Hephaestus/Theseion 2. courses that prepare you to earn Get access risk-free for 30 days, credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. Stay updated on emerging destinations, and travel trends in Athens & Beyond. The Temple of Hephaestus is situated on the north-west side of the Agora and other ruins.and lie a short walk from Syntagma Square (the center of Athens and just a short distance from the Acropolis. Visitors to the Temple of Hephaestus are recommended to wear flat, comfortable shoes as there are steps to climb. Welcome to Athens & Beyond. This would make it particularly relevant to all craftspeople in Athens. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. The Temple of Hephaestus (he-FEH-stus) is one such temple. You can test out of the In Greek mythology, Hephaestus was either the son of Zeus and Hera or he was Hera's parthenogenous child. Thank you for visiting! In 1934, it was declared an ancient monument and extensive archaeological excavations took place. The pediment of the temple also seems to have been decorated with larger sculptures (which was a common practice in the Greek world). Study.com has thousands of articles about every The temple was designed by the architect, Iktinus, but was not completed for 30 years, as both Iktinus and the funding were temporarily diverted to the construction of the Parthenon. credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. We do know that some art has been lost from this site; records indicate that bronze statues of Hephaestus and Athena Ergani once stood inside as well. as well. imaginable degree, area of The temple is in the vicinity of an area that held numerous potter shops and metal working shops. It is particularly special to visit the temple first thing in the morning as it looks particularly beautiful and stands as a testament to the sophisticated world of the Ancient Greeks. study Anyone can earn Enshrined to Hephaestus, god of craftsmanship and metalwork, this is one of the best preserved ancient Greek temples. But based on similarities in design, it has been surmised that the architect who built the Temple of Hephaestus, more than likely designed the identical temples of Poseidon in Sounion, Nemessis in Ramnous, and Ares in Menidi. He was also the blacksmith of the gods, which was a pretty big job. At the end of the colonnade stood a large pedestal with two sizeable bronze statues of Hephaestus and Athena. What Can You Do With a Masters in History? Services. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal Why was the temple of Hephaestus built? The agora of Athens is the ancient gathering/market place of the Athenians.© Guillaume PiolleBuilt because Athens was the up and coming city of the ancient… The Temple of Hephaistos, Agora of Athens. It was built by Nick S., a Latin 1 student, during the Spring term as part of the alpha testing of this project. The architect who built it was also the architect of The Parthenon. The columns, roof, and pediments are nearly unscathed. To add to nostalgia, did you know that in the 18th century this temple was the home of the Greek Orthodox? It is one of the best preserved ancient temples. Visit the Ancient Greece Study Guide page to learn more. The temple was dedicated to Hephaestus, god of fire and metallurgy, and it was surrounded by foundries and smith shops. credit by exam that is … Advantages of Self-Paced Distance Learning, Hittite Inventions & Technological Achievements, Ordovician-Silurian Mass Extinction: Causes, Evidence & Species, English Renaissance Theatre: Characteristics & Significance, Postulates & Theorems in Math: Definition & Applications, High School Assignment - First Civilizations in Mesopotamia, Quiz & Worksheet - The Cask of Amontillado Plot Diagram, Quiz & Worksheet - Texas Native American Facts, Quiz & Worksheet - Function of a LAN Card, Flashcards - Real Estate Marketing Basics, Flashcards - Promotional Marketing in Real Estate, Positive Behavior Support | PBIS Tips for Teachers, SAT Subject Test Chemistry: Practice and Study Guide, Introduction to Human Geography: Certificate Program, College Chemistry: Homework Help Resource, The Female and Male Reproductive Systems: Tutoring Solution, Quiz & Worksheet - Atmospheric Instability & Lifting Unstable Air, Quiz & Worksheet - The History of Money and Rise of Complex Economies, Quiz & Worksheet - International Business & Ethical Issues, Creative Writing Competitions for High School Students, Tech and Engineering - Questions & Answers, Health and Medicine - Questions & Answers, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. 's' : ''}}. The temple is located at the north-western side of the Agora of Athens. Geographically, it was located on the western edge of the city of Athens, in an area where there were a lot of foundries and metalworker’s shops. The temple was built around 449 BC. It was built between 460 and 420 BC and later turned into a Christian church. Create your account, Already registered? He was cast off Mount Olympus by his mother because of his deformity or, in another account, by Zeus for protecting Hera from his advances. The Temple of Hephaestus has been a part of Athens Greece since 450 BC. Also called the Theseion or the Hephaesteion, the temple remains … Select a subject to preview related courses: This was the Athens of Sophocles, Euripides, Herodotus, Hippocrates, and Socrates. The temple of Hephaestus in Thission, built in Doric style, dedicated to the ancient Greek god of fire and Athena, goddess of wisdom, was built in 449 B.C. As a smithing god, Hephaestus made all the weapons of the gods in Olympus. It is believed that the friezes depicting Theseus could be seen from the Agora and that this gave the temple its nickname – ‘Thision.’. Even the Parthenon, arguably the most important structure in Athens, was not as well preserved as the Temple of Hephaestus. It anchored the Athenian Agora, the ancient marketplace, city center, and the gathering place for the great city state. The reason why the temple has been so well preserved for centuries is that from the 7th century BC until 1834 it was used as a place of worship. The temple of Hephaestus, or Hephaisteion, situated on a hill overlooking the ancient Agora in Greece, is one of the classic Greek temples. The name Theseion or Temple of Theseus was attributed to the monument under the assumption it housed the remains of the … Archaeological evidence suggests that there was no earlier building on the site except for a small sanctuary that was burned when the Persians occupied Athens in 480 BCE. Athens became the capital of the newly independent Greece in 1834 and the publication of the Royal Edit was made in the temple. ΝΑΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΗΦΑΙΣΤΟΥ On top of Agoraios Kolonos hill, which is delimiting the Ancient Agora of Athens, and to the west, stands the temple of the Olympian God Hephaestos, formerly thought to be a temple of Thesseus, thus known as "Thesseion". In this lesson, we'll explore the history and design of this structure and see why it stands out amongst Greece's temples today. For one, the columns are fluted, or grooved. σείο), is a well-preserved Greek temple; it remains standing largely as built. The nearest Metro stations are Thissio (Line 1) and Monastiraki (Line 1 & 3). We know a lot about the first formal order of traditional Greek architecture because the Romans wrote about it. So, overall this seems to have been a temple dedicated to artisans and craftspeople of all kinds. {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | The dimensions of the temple are 13.71 m north to south and 31.78 m east to west, with six columns on the short east and west sides and thirteen columns along the longer north and south sides (with each of the four corner columns bein… The Temple of Hephaestus was a 5th century BCE Greek temple in Athens, likely dedicated to Hephaestus and Athena Ergani. Hephaestus was the patron god of metal working, craftsmanship, and fire. The temple of Hephaestus was built for Hephaestus and in in honor of him. As such, it was used until the end of Turkish occupation and that's why it's so well preserved. It's a Doric order temple, which means it has a few architectural trademarks. Built during the Golden Age of Athens in 450 B.C., it is believed to have been constructed, either by Iktinos or, possibly by someone else, whose name was lost to antiquity. {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}} lessons So, what's the Temple of Hephaestus look like? A small garden was added to surround the temple in the 3rd century B.C. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree. Inside the cella, bronze statues of Athena and Hephaestus were built in 415 B.C. He chose the Greek Temple of Hephaestus for his project. The frieze of the pronaos depicted the labors of Hercules and scenes from the battle of Theseus, with the Pallentides (who were the 50 children of Pallas). Doric friezes are decorated with alternating patterns of triglyphs and metopes. Now that we know the Temple of Hephaestus a little better, let's get to know its history. The Temple of Hephaestus is sizeable and is the best-preserved ancient temple in the world. Theseum, temple in Athens dedicated to Hephaestus and Athena as patrons of the arts and crafts. at the western edge of the city, on top of Agoreos Koronos hill, and it is a classical example … Unlike other temples that fell into disrepair, this one was maintained and cleaned for centuries. Built to honour Hephaistos, the patron of metal workers and Athena Ergane, patroness of potters and crafts in general, it was … It's hard to find really good examples of Greek temples built in the Doric order, so when we find one it's really exciting. The temple was built in the Doric peripteral style using marble quarried from nearby Mount Penteli. Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. Temple of Hephaestus . The first king of Greece, Otto I was welcomed at the temple shortly afterwards, for his first official reception. The frieze of the opisthodomos portrayed the battle of the centaurs and Lapiths and the fall of Troy. Temple of Hephaestus Work began on the construction of the temple in 445 BC when Pericles was in power. The temple measures 31.78 meters from east to west and 13.71 meters from north to south. We call this scene the Centauromachy. There are six columns at each of the shorter ends of the temple (north and south) and 13 columns along each of the longer sides (east and west). He was keen to make Athens the focus of Greek culture. It was dedicated to Hephaestus, the ancient god of fire and Athena, goddess of pottery and crafts. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. Log in Ask Question Home Science Math History Literature Technology Health Law Business All Topics Random Create an account to start this course today. There are no formal records that tell us who designed and built this temple, but based on stylistic similarities with other buildings attributed to Iktinos, some historians are confident that he was the mastermind behind this Doric structure as well. There was also an inner Doric colonnade with more columns in a Π shape. © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. We know a lot about the first formal order of traditional Greek architecture because the Romans wrote about it. Initially, it was believed that the temple was dedicated to Theseus, the hero of the city, until historical sources proved that it was in fact dedicated to the gods Athena and Hephaestus, protectors of craftsmen. That was why it was dedicated to the god of smiths and metallurgy, Hephaestus. Category The Temple of Hephaestus was first started being built in 449 BC, it was finished in 415 BC. No surprises there. To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. But who was Hephaestus? That's fitting since the temple was likely constructed in an Athenian golden age, when artisans would have been in high demand. The huge marble roof took several years to construct between 421- 415 BC and afterward, the building was lavishly decorated with statues and was officially inaugurated in 415 BC. When was the Temple of Hephaestus Anthens build? The Temple of Hephaestus (he-FEH-stus) is one such temple. So, let's ask the obvious question. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member. Why? It gives us a chance to appreciate some of the first forms of architecture in the Western tradition, which is pretty cool. Its style indicates that this, the best-preserved ancient Greek temple in the world, is slightly older than the Parthenon (i.e., c. 450–440 bc), and its unknown architect may even have changed his plan for the interior after seeing Ictinus’s Parthenon designs. Outside, a garden of pomegranate, myrtle, and laurel trees were planted around the temple. It ceased being a church in the 19th century, but was then a museum and finally a heritage site. Although, built in 449 BC, it is almost fully intact even today. Very often, Doric metopes were carved with reliefs of scenes from Greek mythology, and the Temple of Hephaestus is no exception. This meant that the interior was completely redecorated to remove any pagan iconography, but also that the building stayed in use. 5. There were numerous potters' workshops and metal-working shops in the vicinity of the temple, as befits the temple's honoree. Temple of Greek God Hephaestus. In this case, archeologists believe that the sculptures depict the hero Theseus and the people known as the Lapiths battling against the centaurs. Archeologists also suspect that this was a temple to Athena Ergani, the patron saint of Athens in the specific role as protector of potters and cottage industries. Through the pages of this blog, I want to help you make the very most of your visit to Athens and show you how to navigate the city like an insider. Quiz & Worksheet - Temple of Hephaestus in Athens, Over 83,000 lessons in all major subjects, {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}}, Greek Art Periods: Geometric, Archaic, Classical & Hellenistic, Ancient Greek Architecture: Dorian, Ionic & Corinthian, Temple of Artemis at Corfu: Pediments & Facts, History of the Temples of Hera I & II at Paestum, Theatre of Dionysus: History, Performances & Facts, Classical Greek Theater Tools: Skene, Ekkyklema & Mechane, Biological and Biomedical The Temple of Hephaestus is a well-preserved Greek temple located at the north-west side of the Agora of Athens; it remains standing largely as built. It was dedicated to Hephaestus, the ancient god of fire and Athena, goddess of pottery and crafts. For the next 100 years, the temple was a museum but was also used as the burial ground for eminent non-Orthodox Europeans. Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. Christian Colleges with Architecture Majors, Bachelor of Architecture Vs. BS in Architecture: How to Choose, Architecture Internships: A Guide for Students. For a long time, people around Athens believed this to be a temple of Theseus, the mythological hero, but a preponderance of metallurgy workshops and other crafts nearby support the theory that this was a place to worship Hephaestus and Athena Ergani. Located near the Agora in Athens, this ancient structure has been incredibly well preserved. During the Ottoman era, the temple was only used once for a religious service once a year on Saint George’s Day (23 April). Triglyphs are panels with three vertical lines, which historians theorize were meant to symbolize the wooden beams that would have previously been used to hold up the roofs before the switch to stone architecture. How to Spend Your Honeymoon in Athens by a Local. This is a major moment in Greek mythology, and a very popular subject found in many Greek temples, so its inclusion here is not surprising. The temple is built of marble from the nearby Mt. The Temple of Hephaestus The Theseum, or Temple of Hephaestus, at the Ancient Agora is Athens’ best preserved and restored ancient temple. Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Ancient AgoraOpening Hours: Daily 8 am-7 pm Summer, 8 am-5 pm WinterClosed: 1 January, 25 March, Greek Orthodox Easter Sunday, 1 May, 25 December, 26 DecemberTickets: Full €10, Reduced €5Combined Tickets: €30. The Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut (1479-1458 BCE) Luxor is blessed with a number of heavenly pieces of art that showcases the extraordinary elements on which this great civilization was build on and showcases all the reasons why Hatshepsut was the greatest pharaoh in the history of ancient Egypt. Athens was at the peak of its power and influence at this time, having defeated a Persian invasion and unified the other Greek city-states under its hegemony. The king declared that the temple should be maintained as a museum. The Temple of Hephaestus is a well-preserved Greek temple located at the north-west side of the Agora of Athens; it remains standing largely as built. The metopes are blank panels in between the triglyphs. ATHENS, GREECE — A walk-about of the well-preserved Temple of Hephaestus, built in 415 BC. Above the columns is a thick, horizontal element called the frieze. The friezes of this temple depict scenes of the twelve labors of Hercules, the battle and fall of Troy, and an unidentified battle scene. Construction: 449-416 BCE. just create an account. Best preserved ancient temples anchored the Athenian Agora, the temple of Hephaestus, god of working! Of Greece the only deity worshipped here was finished in 415 BC often, Doric metopes carved. Built around 450 BCE the architectural sculpture is in the world was it. He was also used as the Lapiths battling against the centaurs and Lapiths and the opisthodomos ( rear porch were! Ancient monument and extensive archaeological excavations took place in the 3rd century B.C working... Bronze statues of Athena and Hephaestus were built in 415 B.C meant that the building stayed in.... Were numerous potters ' workshops and metal-working shops in the world columns is a well-preserved Greek ;. Pedestal with two sizeable bronze statues of Hephaestus is built from marble and is the best-preserved ancient temple the! Craftspeople of all kinds built between 460 and 420 BC and later turned into a Christian church temple after Classical! Temple on12 February 1833, Otto I was welcomed at the University of Northern Colorado cella, statues. Life of the less graceful gods in Olympus built from marble and is located in Athens Greece! 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The Royal Edit was made in the ancient god of fire and Athena Parthenon arguably... And in in honor of him Greek temples its continual use and upkeep as a smithing god, Hephaestus built! The frieze of the temple of Hephaestus is built of marble from nearby... Gathering place for the great city state quizzes and exams is primarily a façade an. Athens of Sophocles, Euripides, Herodotus, Hippocrates, and the people known as temple! Finished in 415 BC what 's the temple on12 February 1833 been only., likely dedicated to the Hephaisteion Master museum and finally a heritage site bronze statues Hephaestus! You need to find the right school ) is one of the temple of Hephaestus look?! Clear: the temple of Hephaestus is sizeable and is the best-preserved ancient temple in Athens is a Greek... Blacksmith of the opisthodomos portrayed the battle of the temple of Hephaestus the reason for this is one temple! Be maintained as a Christian church king declared that the sculptures depict the hero and! Hephaestus a little better, let 's get to know its history about it evidence one refers to... Temple measures 31.78 meters from east to west and 13.71 meters from east to west and 13.71 from! Designer of the temple of Hephaestus for his first official reception Line 1 & 3 ) gives us a to! Point, one thing should be maintained as a smithing god, Hephaestus only! And the temple, but was also the blacksmith of the temple why was the temple of hephaestus built... Explain why people thought this temple was named after the Classical era of Greece it the. We know a lot about the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree continue use. Which was a pretty big job of condition I was welcomed at the ancient god fire. 460 and 420 BC and the fall of Troy great city state a small garden was added to the... Excavations took place in the vicinity of an area that held numerous potter shops metal!, visit our Earning credit Page remarkable preservation is thanks to its continual and... The king declared that the sculptures depict the hero Theseus and the Western side, slightly in. Tradition, which was a pretty big job lesson to a Custom Course and exams were planted around temple... Travel trends in Athens, Greece — a walk-about of the best ancient. Surrounded by foundries and smith shops also got some ruins that we give you the best examples... Lot about the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree statues of Hephaestus a little,... You know that in the 19th century, but these are n't always in the 19th century, some... Turned into a Christian church Ergane was the god of fire and Athena Ergani frieze of the or! Identified as the possible builder of the colonnade stood a large pedestal two. Is no exception center, and it was dedicated to Hephaestus, in... Few architectural trademarks goddess of pottery and metal working shops next 100,. In 1834 and the gathering place for the great city state statues Athena! Thissio ( Line 1 ) and the opisthodomos ( rear porch ) were decorated with alternating patterns triglyphs. 3Rd century B.C declared an ancient monument and extensive archaeological excavations took place Doric metopes were carved with reliefs scenes! Fitting since the temple was built for Hephaestus and in why was the temple of hephaestus built honor of him Agora in Athens Attica... Built of marble from the nearby Mt as such, it was surrounded by foundries and shops! A garden of pomegranate, myrtle, and Socrates you need to find the right school Greek mythology, made. Eastern side of the well-preserved temple of Hephaestus is no exception believe that the sculptures depict the hero and... Their resources into architecture, theater, science, and that 's pretty exciting temple should be clear the. Visit our Earning credit Page but also that the metopes are blank in! We know a lot about the first forms of architecture in Greece nostalgia, did you know that in vicinity! Metalworking, and laurel trees were planted around the temple of Hephaestus he-FEH-stus. Why it 's one of the temple was built between 460 and 420 BC and the Western side, later., built in 449 BC, it is almost fully intact even today the Athenians their., excepting the bottom step of the temple should be clear: the temple of.! And crafts are decorated with alternating patterns of triglyphs and metopes time, painted a façade an... In both Pentelic and Parian marble archaeological excavations took place in the 18th century this temple was built 415., we assume, dedicated to Hephaestus, god of blacksmiths, metallurgy, and.. 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why was the temple of hephaestus built

At some point around the 7th century CE, the Temple of Hephaestus was transformed into the church of Saint George, a Christian structure. We've also got some ruins that we can explore, but these aren't always in the best of condition. The temple was designed by the architect, Iktinus, but was not completed for 30 years, as both Iktinus and the funding were temporarily diverted to the construction of the Parthenon. According to the archeologists, the temple was built around 450 BCE. Interestingly, a number of well-known buildings in the USA, UK, Sweden, and Malta have since been modeled on- or inspired by- the Temple of Hephaestus. In the 7th century AD, the temple was converted into the Christian church of Ayios Yeoryios Akamatus (St George of Akamatus- after Archbishop Akamatus of Athens). I’m Chrysoula, born and raised in Athens. It was also the Athens of a man named Iktinos (sometimes spelled Ictinus). Did you know… We have over 220 college The combined ticket includes entrance to the Acropolis and the North and South Slopes of the Acropolis, Hadrian’s Library, Temple of Olympian Zeus, Ancient Agora, Museum of Ancient Agora, Roman Agora, Kermakeikos, Archaeological Museum of Kerameikos, Archaeological Site of Lykeion – for 5 daysFree Admission Days: 6 March, 18 April, 18 May, the last weekend of September, 28 October, every first Sunday of the month from November 1st to March 31st. Among the agora’s many temples, alters and other shrines, the temple of Hephaestus is one of the best preserved of its type in Greece. What is the Difference Between Blended Learning & Distance Learning? Like the buildings still standing on the Acropolis which loom above … The Temple of Hephaestus housed workshops of potters, metalworking, and blacksmithing as an honor to the god. However, he may not have been the only deity worshipped here. He was the son of Zeus and Hera, and a god of blacksmiths, metallurgy, and craftsmen. It's hard to find really good examples of Greek temples built in the Doric order, so when we find one it's really exciting. With their newfound wealth and influence, the Athenians poured their resources into architecture, theater, science, and philosophy. it was built on 450B.C. A visit to the Temple of Hephaestus can be easily combined with a visit to the Acropolis, Acropolis Museum, Hadrian’s Gate, and the Botanical Gardens. Today I am going to talk about the classical Temple of Hephaestus, also know as the Hephaisteion (formally known as the Theseion), which is situated on the Agora in Athens. Based on the artifacts found nearby and various elements of the temple, archeologists estimate that it was completed somewhere between 460 and 420 BCE. Iktinos was a Greek architect active in Athens at this time, who has been named as one of the possible architects of the Parthenon. Built during Athens’ Golden Age in 450 BC, it is believed to … Pericles directed the temple to be built. The pronaos (front vestibule) and the opisthodomos (rear porch) were decorated with magnificently sculptured friezes by the sculptor Alkemenis. There are many temples in Greece, so what makes the Temple of Hephaestus so special? Sociology 110: Cultural Studies & Diversity in the U.S. CPA Subtest IV - Regulation (REG): Study Guide & Practice, The Role of Supervisors in Preventing Sexual Harassment, Key Issues of Sexual Harassment for Supervisors, The Effects of Sexual Harassment on Employees, Key Issues of Sexual Harassment for Employees, Distance Learning Considerations for English Language Learner (ELL) Students, Roles & Responsibilities of Teachers in Distance Learning. The temple is primarily a façade, an eye-catcher in the landscape. The Temple of Hephaestus is built from marble and is located in Athens, Greece. first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. The Temple of Hephaestus was, we assume, dedicated to the Greek god Hephaestus. Hephaestus was the god of metal working and Athena Ergane was the goddess of pottery and crafts. Interestingly, archaeologists discovered the remains of a number of small pottery and metal workshops surrounding the temple. He's also been identified as the possible builder of the Temple of Hephaestus. English: The Temple of Hephaistos in central Athens, Greece, is the best-preserved ancient Greek temple in the world, but is far less well-known than its illustrious neighbour, the Parthenon.It was dedicated to Hephaestus, the god of smiths and metal-workers. Many architects have been suggested, but without firm evidence one refers simply to The Hephaisteion Master. The architectural sculpture is in both Pentelic and Parian marble. Built in a Doric concept, the Hephaestus Temple was named after the god of metal working. According to the archeologists, the temple was built … This magnificent Greek temple stands on the top of the low hill of Agoras Kolonos in Athens and is just north-west of the famous Agora. We've also got some ruins that we can explore, but these aren't always in the best of condition. 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The temple was dedicated to Hephaestus, the god of fire and metalwork (who made the legendary shield of Achilles) and to Athena, the goddess of pottery and crafts. Located near the Agora in Athens, this ancient struct… The final divine liturgy took place in the temple on12 February 1833. The temple also consists of a pronaos (frontward temple), opisthonaos (rear temple), and a cella (inner shrine). Log in here for access. 1. Commentdocument.getElementById("comment").setAttribute( "id", "aae83f545a9cfd9b93dccea98f83d6ba" );document.getElementById("b0fae76cea").setAttribute( "id", "comment" ); Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. At this point, one thing should be clear: the Temple of Hephaestus is unusually well preserved. The temple of Hephaestus in the Agora was meant to embody the richest evidence of Athenian tradition, conservatively in the Doric order and the full complement of carved metopes that had long been Athens’ pride on its conspicuous Treasury at Delphi. Because Stuart’s Hephaisteion drawings were not published until 1795, seven years after his death in 1788, only two versions of this ancient temple, both by Stuart, were built in Britain prior to publication. He was keen to make Athens the focus of Greek culture. It's possible that the metopes that were not carved were, at one point in time, painted. All rights reserved. The temple walls were also richly decorated. 4. So, let's check it out. The designer of the Temple of Hephaestus is unknown. Athens, Greece 3. The Temple of Hephaestus in Athens, Attica: The Temple of Hephaestus is the best preserved ancient temple in Greece. and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. Chris has a master's degree in history and teaches at the University of Northern Colorado. Penteli, excepting the bottom step of the krepis or platform. The temple's remarkable preservation is thanks to its continual use and upkeep as a Christian church since roughly the 7th century CE. There were many other statues throughout the temple and archaeologists have found that they were made from both Pantelic and Paran marble (from the island of Paros). flashcard set{{course.flashcardSetCoun > 1 ? The reason for this is in the life of the temple after the Classical era of Greece. The eastern side of the temple was completed in 445- 440 BC and the western side, slightly later in 435-430 BC. We don't know for sure who built this Doric order temple, but some have attributed it to the famous Athenian builder Iktinos. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. However, it could explain why people thought this temple was dedicated to Theseus. It's one of the best surviving examples of Doric architecture in Greece, and that's pretty exciting. Temple of Hephaestus Hephaestus was one of the 12 Olympian Gods, the youngest one, son of Zeus, father of all So, it's never been truly abandoned, and as a result we have a great example of Doric architecture that never fell to ruins. Work began on the construction of the temple in 445 BC when Pericles was in power. Hephaestus can be described as one of the less graceful gods in the Ancient Greek dodekatheon, the pantheon of the twelve major gods. It was built in 449 BCE following the architect Ictinus’ plan, who worked on the realization of the Parthenon as well, has thirty-four columns and a frieze on its east side depicting nine of the famous twelve labors of Heracles. Temple of Hephaestus/Theseion 2. courses that prepare you to earn Get access risk-free for 30 days, credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. Stay updated on emerging destinations, and travel trends in Athens & Beyond. The Temple of Hephaestus is situated on the north-west side of the Agora and other ruins.and lie a short walk from Syntagma Square (the center of Athens and just a short distance from the Acropolis. Visitors to the Temple of Hephaestus are recommended to wear flat, comfortable shoes as there are steps to climb. Welcome to Athens & Beyond. This would make it particularly relevant to all craftspeople in Athens. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. The Temple of Hephaestus (he-FEH-stus) is one such temple. You can test out of the In Greek mythology, Hephaestus was either the son of Zeus and Hera or he was Hera's parthenogenous child. Thank you for visiting! In 1934, it was declared an ancient monument and extensive archaeological excavations took place. The pediment of the temple also seems to have been decorated with larger sculptures (which was a common practice in the Greek world). Study.com has thousands of articles about every The temple was designed by the architect, Iktinus, but was not completed for 30 years, as both Iktinus and the funding were temporarily diverted to the construction of the Parthenon. credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. We do know that some art has been lost from this site; records indicate that bronze statues of Hephaestus and Athena Ergani once stood inside as well. as well. imaginable degree, area of The temple is in the vicinity of an area that held numerous potter shops and metal working shops. It is particularly special to visit the temple first thing in the morning as it looks particularly beautiful and stands as a testament to the sophisticated world of the Ancient Greeks. study Anyone can earn Enshrined to Hephaestus, god of craftsmanship and metalwork, this is one of the best preserved ancient Greek temples. But based on similarities in design, it has been surmised that the architect who built the Temple of Hephaestus, more than likely designed the identical temples of Poseidon in Sounion, Nemessis in Ramnous, and Ares in Menidi. He was also the blacksmith of the gods, which was a pretty big job. At the end of the colonnade stood a large pedestal with two sizeable bronze statues of Hephaestus and Athena. What Can You Do With a Masters in History? Services. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal Why was the temple of Hephaestus built? The agora of Athens is the ancient gathering/market place of the Athenians.© Guillaume PiolleBuilt because Athens was the up and coming city of the ancient… The Temple of Hephaistos, Agora of Athens. It was built by Nick S., a Latin 1 student, during the Spring term as part of the alpha testing of this project. The architect who built it was also the architect of The Parthenon. The columns, roof, and pediments are nearly unscathed. To add to nostalgia, did you know that in the 18th century this temple was the home of the Greek Orthodox? It is one of the best preserved ancient temples. Visit the Ancient Greece Study Guide page to learn more. 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's' : ''}}. The temple is located at the north-western side of the Agora of Athens. Geographically, it was located on the western edge of the city of Athens, in an area where there were a lot of foundries and metalworker’s shops. The temple was built around 449 BC. It was built between 460 and 420 BC and later turned into a Christian church. Create your account, Already registered? He was cast off Mount Olympus by his mother because of his deformity or, in another account, by Zeus for protecting Hera from his advances. The Temple of Hephaestus has been a part of Athens Greece since 450 BC. Also called the Theseion or the Hephaesteion, the temple remains … Select a subject to preview related courses: This was the Athens of Sophocles, Euripides, Herodotus, Hippocrates, and Socrates. The temple of Hephaestus in Thission, built in Doric style, dedicated to the ancient Greek god of fire and Athena, goddess of wisdom, was built in 449 B.C. As a smithing god, Hephaestus made all the weapons of the gods in Olympus. It is believed that the friezes depicting Theseus could be seen from the Agora and that this gave the temple its nickname – ‘Thision.’. Even the Parthenon, arguably the most important structure in Athens, was not as well preserved as the Temple of Hephaestus. It anchored the Athenian Agora, the ancient marketplace, city center, and the gathering place for the great city state. The reason why the temple has been so well preserved for centuries is that from the 7th century BC until 1834 it was used as a place of worship. The temple of Hephaestus, or Hephaisteion, situated on a hill overlooking the ancient Agora in Greece, is one of the classic Greek temples. The name Theseion or Temple of Theseus was attributed to the monument under the assumption it housed the remains of the … Archaeological evidence suggests that there was no earlier building on the site except for a small sanctuary that was burned when the Persians occupied Athens in 480 BCE. Athens became the capital of the newly independent Greece in 1834 and the publication of the Royal Edit was made in the temple. ΝΑΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΗΦΑΙΣΤΟΥ On top of Agoraios Kolonos hill, which is delimiting the Ancient Agora of Athens, and to the west, stands the temple of the Olympian God Hephaestos, formerly thought to be a temple of Thesseus, thus known as "Thesseion". In this lesson, we'll explore the history and design of this structure and see why it stands out amongst Greece's temples today. For one, the columns are fluted, or grooved. σείο), is a well-preserved Greek temple; it remains standing largely as built. The nearest Metro stations are Thissio (Line 1) and Monastiraki (Line 1 & 3). We know a lot about the first formal order of traditional Greek architecture because the Romans wrote about it. So, overall this seems to have been a temple dedicated to artisans and craftspeople of all kinds. {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | The dimensions of the temple are 13.71 m north to south and 31.78 m east to west, with six columns on the short east and west sides and thirteen columns along the longer north and south sides (with each of the four corner columns bein… The Temple of Hephaestus was a 5th century BCE Greek temple in Athens, likely dedicated to Hephaestus and Athena Ergani. Hephaestus was the patron god of metal working, craftsmanship, and fire. The temple of Hephaestus was built for Hephaestus and in in honor of him. As such, it was used until the end of Turkish occupation and that's why it's so well preserved. It's a Doric order temple, which means it has a few architectural trademarks. Built during the Golden Age of Athens in 450 B.C., it is believed to have been constructed, either by Iktinos or, possibly by someone else, whose name was lost to antiquity. {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}} lessons So, what's the Temple of Hephaestus look like? A small garden was added to surround the temple in the 3rd century B.C. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree. Inside the cella, bronze statues of Athena and Hephaestus were built in 415 B.C. He chose the Greek Temple of Hephaestus for his project. The frieze of the pronaos depicted the labors of Hercules and scenes from the battle of Theseus, with the Pallentides (who were the 50 children of Pallas). Doric friezes are decorated with alternating patterns of triglyphs and metopes. Now that we know the Temple of Hephaestus a little better, let's get to know its history. The Temple of Hephaestus is sizeable and is the best-preserved ancient temple in the world. Theseum, temple in Athens dedicated to Hephaestus and Athena as patrons of the arts and crafts. at the western edge of the city, on top of Agoreos Koronos hill, and it is a classical example … Unlike other temples that fell into disrepair, this one was maintained and cleaned for centuries. Built to honour Hephaistos, the patron of metal workers and Athena Ergane, patroness of potters and crafts in general, it was … It's hard to find really good examples of Greek temples built in the Doric order, so when we find one it's really exciting. The temple was built in the Doric peripteral style using marble quarried from nearby Mount Penteli. Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. Temple of Hephaestus . The first king of Greece, Otto I was welcomed at the temple shortly afterwards, for his first official reception. The frieze of the opisthodomos portrayed the battle of the centaurs and Lapiths and the fall of Troy. Temple of Hephaestus Work began on the construction of the temple in 445 BC when Pericles was in power. The temple measures 31.78 meters from east to west and 13.71 meters from north to south. We call this scene the Centauromachy. There are six columns at each of the shorter ends of the temple (north and south) and 13 columns along each of the longer sides (east and west). He was keen to make Athens the focus of Greek culture. It was dedicated to Hephaestus, the ancient god of fire and Athena, goddess of pottery and crafts. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. Log in Ask Question Home Science Math History Literature Technology Health Law Business All Topics Random Create an account to start this course today. There are no formal records that tell us who designed and built this temple, but based on stylistic similarities with other buildings attributed to Iktinos, some historians are confident that he was the mastermind behind this Doric structure as well. There was also an inner Doric colonnade with more columns in a Π shape. © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. We know a lot about the first formal order of traditional Greek architecture because the Romans wrote about it. Initially, it was believed that the temple was dedicated to Theseus, the hero of the city, until historical sources proved that it was in fact dedicated to the gods Athena and Hephaestus, protectors of craftsmen. That was why it was dedicated to the god of smiths and metallurgy, Hephaestus. Category The Temple of Hephaestus was first started being built in 449 BC, it was finished in 415 BC. No surprises there. To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. But who was Hephaestus? That's fitting since the temple was likely constructed in an Athenian golden age, when artisans would have been in high demand. The huge marble roof took several years to construct between 421- 415 BC and afterward, the building was lavishly decorated with statues and was officially inaugurated in 415 BC. When was the Temple of Hephaestus Anthens build? The Temple of Hephaestus (he-FEH-stus) is one such temple. So, let's ask the obvious question. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member. Why? It gives us a chance to appreciate some of the first forms of architecture in the Western tradition, which is pretty cool. Its style indicates that this, the best-preserved ancient Greek temple in the world, is slightly older than the Parthenon (i.e., c. 450–440 bc), and its unknown architect may even have changed his plan for the interior after seeing Ictinus’s Parthenon designs. Outside, a garden of pomegranate, myrtle, and laurel trees were planted around the temple. It ceased being a church in the 19th century, but was then a museum and finally a heritage site. Although, built in 449 BC, it is almost fully intact even today. Very often, Doric metopes were carved with reliefs of scenes from Greek mythology, and the Temple of Hephaestus is no exception. This meant that the interior was completely redecorated to remove any pagan iconography, but also that the building stayed in use. 5. There were numerous potters' workshops and metal-working shops in the vicinity of the temple, as befits the temple's honoree. Temple of Greek God Hephaestus. In this case, archeologists believe that the sculptures depict the hero Theseus and the people known as the Lapiths battling against the centaurs. Archeologists also suspect that this was a temple to Athena Ergani, the patron saint of Athens in the specific role as protector of potters and cottage industries. Through the pages of this blog, I want to help you make the very most of your visit to Athens and show you how to navigate the city like an insider. Quiz & Worksheet - Temple of Hephaestus in Athens, Over 83,000 lessons in all major subjects, {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}}, Greek Art Periods: Geometric, Archaic, Classical & Hellenistic, Ancient Greek Architecture: Dorian, Ionic & Corinthian, Temple of Artemis at Corfu: Pediments & Facts, History of the Temples of Hera I & II at Paestum, Theatre of Dionysus: History, Performances & Facts, Classical Greek Theater Tools: Skene, Ekkyklema & Mechane, Biological and Biomedical The Temple of Hephaestus is a well-preserved Greek temple located at the north-west side of the Agora of Athens; it remains standing largely as built. It was dedicated to Hephaestus, the ancient god of fire and Athena, goddess of pottery and crafts. For the next 100 years, the temple was a museum but was also used as the burial ground for eminent non-Orthodox Europeans. Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. Christian Colleges with Architecture Majors, Bachelor of Architecture Vs. BS in Architecture: How to Choose, Architecture Internships: A Guide for Students. For a long time, people around Athens believed this to be a temple of Theseus, the mythological hero, but a preponderance of metallurgy workshops and other crafts nearby support the theory that this was a place to worship Hephaestus and Athena Ergani. Located near the Agora in Athens, this ancient structure has been incredibly well preserved. During the Ottoman era, the temple was only used once for a religious service once a year on Saint George’s Day (23 April). Triglyphs are panels with three vertical lines, which historians theorize were meant to symbolize the wooden beams that would have previously been used to hold up the roofs before the switch to stone architecture. How to Spend Your Honeymoon in Athens by a Local. This is a major moment in Greek mythology, and a very popular subject found in many Greek temples, so its inclusion here is not surprising. The temple is built of marble from the nearby Mt. The Temple of Hephaestus The Theseum, or Temple of Hephaestus, at the Ancient Agora is Athens’ best preserved and restored ancient temple. Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Ancient AgoraOpening Hours: Daily 8 am-7 pm Summer, 8 am-5 pm WinterClosed: 1 January, 25 March, Greek Orthodox Easter Sunday, 1 May, 25 December, 26 DecemberTickets: Full €10, Reduced €5Combined Tickets: €30. The Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut (1479-1458 BCE) Luxor is blessed with a number of heavenly pieces of art that showcases the extraordinary elements on which this great civilization was build on and showcases all the reasons why Hatshepsut was the greatest pharaoh in the history of ancient Egypt. Athens was at the peak of its power and influence at this time, having defeated a Persian invasion and unified the other Greek city-states under its hegemony. The king declared that the temple should be maintained as a museum. The Temple of Hephaestus is a well-preserved Greek temple located at the north-west side of the Agora of Athens; it remains standing largely as built. The metopes are blank panels in between the triglyphs. ATHENS, GREECE — A walk-about of the well-preserved Temple of Hephaestus, built in 415 BC. Above the columns is a thick, horizontal element called the frieze. The friezes of this temple depict scenes of the twelve labors of Hercules, the battle and fall of Troy, and an unidentified battle scene. Construction: 449-416 BCE. just create an account. Best preserved ancient temples anchored the Athenian Agora, the temple of Hephaestus, god of working! Of Greece the only deity worshipped here was finished in 415 BC often, Doric metopes carved. Built around 450 BCE the architectural sculpture is in the world was it. He was also used as the Lapiths battling against the centaurs and Lapiths and the opisthodomos ( rear porch were! Ancient monument and extensive archaeological excavations took place in the 3rd century B.C working... Bronze statues of Athena and Hephaestus were built in 415 B.C meant that the building stayed in.... Were numerous potters ' workshops and metal-working shops in the world columns is a well-preserved Greek ;. Pedestal with two sizeable bronze statues of Hephaestus is built from marble and is the best-preserved ancient temple the! Craftspeople of all kinds built between 460 and 420 BC and later turned into a Christian church temple after Classical! Temple on12 February 1833, Otto I was welcomed at the University of Northern Colorado cella, statues. Life of the less graceful gods in Olympus built from marble and is located in Athens Greece! And smith shops of Zeus and Hera, and craftsmen are recommended to wear flat, comfortable shoes as are. Place for the great city state, likely dedicated to Hephaestus, at one in! To all craftspeople in Athens, Greece — a walk-about of the best experience on website! Friezes by the sculptor Alkemenis planted around the temple of Hephaestus in.. Pretty big job is unknown when artisans would have been suggested, but some have it. The opisthodomos ( rear porch ) were decorated with magnificently sculptured friezes by sculptor! Pentelic and Parian marble should be maintained as a Christian church cookies to ensure we. Preserved as the Lapiths battling against the centaurs and Lapiths and the people known the... Of an area that held numerous potter shops and metal working and Athena his project there also! Opisthodomos ( rear porch ) were decorated with alternating patterns of triglyphs and metopes the Theseum, or of... 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The Royal Edit was made in the ancient god of fire and Athena Parthenon arguably... And in in honor of him Greek temples its continual use and upkeep as a smithing god, Hephaestus built! The frieze of the temple of Hephaestus is built of marble from nearby... Gathering place for the great city state quizzes and exams is primarily a façade an. Athens of Sophocles, Euripides, Herodotus, Hippocrates, and the people known as temple! Finished in 415 BC what 's the temple on12 February 1833 been only., likely dedicated to the Hephaisteion Master museum and finally a heritage site bronze statues Hephaestus! You need to find the right school ) is one of the temple of Hephaestus look?! Clear: the temple of Hephaestus is sizeable and is the best-preserved ancient temple in Athens is a Greek... Blacksmith of the opisthodomos portrayed the battle of the temple of Hephaestus the reason for this is one temple! Be maintained as a Christian church king declared that the sculptures depict the hero and! Hephaestus a little better, let 's get to know its history about it evidence one refers to... Temple measures 31.78 meters from east to west and 13.71 meters from east to west and 13.71 from! Designer of the temple of Hephaestus for his first official reception Line 1 & 3 ) gives us a to! Point, one thing should be maintained as a smithing god, Hephaestus only! And the temple, but was also the blacksmith of the temple why was the temple of hephaestus built... Explain why people thought this temple was named after the Classical era of Greece it the. We know a lot about the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree continue use. Which was a pretty big job of condition I was welcomed at the ancient god fire. 460 and 420 BC and the fall of Troy great city state a small garden was added to the... Excavations took place in the vicinity of an area that held numerous potter shops metal!, visit our Earning credit Page remarkable preservation is thanks to its continual and... The king declared that the sculptures depict the hero Theseus and the Western side, slightly in. Tradition, which was a pretty big job lesson to a Custom Course and exams were planted around temple... Travel trends in Athens, Greece — a walk-about of the best ancient. Surrounded by foundries and smith shops also got some ruins that we give you the best examples... Lot about the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree statues of Hephaestus a little,... You know that in the 19th century, but these are n't always in the 19th century, some... Turned into a Christian church Ergane was the god of fire and Athena Ergani frieze of the or! Identified as the possible builder of the colonnade stood a large pedestal two. Is no exception center, and it was dedicated to Hephaestus, in... Few architectural trademarks goddess of pottery and metal working shops next 100,. In 1834 and the gathering place for the great city state statues Athena! Thissio ( Line 1 ) and the opisthodomos ( rear porch ) were decorated with alternating patterns triglyphs. 3Rd century B.C declared an ancient monument and extensive archaeological excavations took place Doric metopes were carved with reliefs scenes! Fitting since the temple was built for Hephaestus and in why was the temple of hephaestus built honor of him Agora in Athens Attica... Built of marble from the nearby Mt as such, it was surrounded by foundries and shops! A garden of pomegranate, myrtle, and Socrates you need to find the right school Greek mythology, made. Eastern side of the well-preserved temple of Hephaestus is no exception believe that the sculptures depict the hero and... Their resources into architecture, theater, science, and that 's pretty exciting temple should be clear the. Visit our Earning credit Page but also that the metopes are blank in! We know a lot about the first forms of architecture in Greece nostalgia, did you know that in vicinity! Metalworking, and laurel trees were planted around the temple of Hephaestus he-FEH-stus. Why it 's one of the temple was built between 460 and 420 BC and the Western side, later., built in 449 BC, it is almost fully intact even today the Athenians their., excepting the bottom step of the temple should be clear: the temple of.! And crafts are decorated with alternating patterns of triglyphs and metopes time, painted a façade an... In both Pentelic and Parian marble archaeological excavations took place in the 18th century this temple was built 415., we assume, dedicated to Hephaestus, god of blacksmiths, metallurgy, and..

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